One death is a tragedy, a million is a statistic – said Stalin. Yet, every year over 800,000 people commit suicide, reports WHO. This is both tragic and makes us wonder if this could be avoided. Certainly, these people weren’t happy. More than it is a global fenomena, which affects the poor and the rich, the young and the old.
Specially, when a celebrity commits suicide, it makes us wonder what circumstances lead them to do it. After all, they are the people we most look up to and, in certain cases, we want to be them. To this point, in this current article, we want to look at 33 celebrities who committed suicide and their stories. Our goal is to show the most popular goal to get rich and famous is not always the best goal in life, as even celebrities are subject to unhappiness, depression, and stress, which in certain caises get so bad that it makes them commit suicide. As such, without any further adue here are the 33 celebrities who committed suicide and their stories:
Alexander McQueen (Designer, 1969-2010, 40 y.o.)
(1) Alexander McQueen is a famous British fashion designer, was a celebrity and the award winner of the Commander of the British Empire (CBE) because of his marvelous and unique work. He also earned four British Designer of the Year awards and an International Designer of the Year award.
McQueen committed Suicide on February 11, 2010, at the age of 40 years. He took a lethal amount of sleeping pills, cocaine, and tranquilizers and then hanged himself and ended his own life. He used to have overdosed and was upset because of his mother’s death, who died just two weeks earlier of his suicide.
Roy Raymond (Businessman, 1947–1993, 46 y.o.)
(2) Roy Larson Raymond was an American businessman and the founder of the Victoria’s Secret lingerie retail store in California. Roy ended his life by committing suicide on August 26, 1993, by jumping off the Golden Gate Bridge.
According to reports published, his last presence was close toward the bridge where he was walking by, and further, after some hours, his body was found by the Coast Guard near the Marin County shoreline. Raymond failed to participate in the potential of his company fully and just finished himself from life.
Vincent van Gogh (Dutch painter, 1853–1890, 37 y.o.)
(3) Vincent van Gogh is a painter whose work is prominent for its excellence, feeling and shading, beauty, emotion, and color — profoundly affected twentieth-century art and painting. He battled with psychological sickness and stayed poor and obscure for the duration of his life.
The passing of Vincent van Gogh, the Dutch post-Impressionist painter, happened in the early morning of July 29, 1890, in his room at the Auberge Ravoux in the town of Auvers-Sur-Oise in northern France. Van Gogh was shot in the stomach, either without help from anyone else or by others, and passed away two days later.
Tim Bergling, aka Avicii (Swedish DJ, 1989–2018, 28 y.o.)
(4) Tim Bergling is a Swedish DJ, remixer, record producer, musician, and songwriter, famous by his stage name Avicii (which means the lowest level of hell in Buddhist terms), committed suicide by self-inflicting wounds from broken glass on April 20, 2018. Tim Bergling reached absurd levels of fame, success, wealth, and adoration.
Sadly all of his success, fame, and wealth made him full of anxiety, depression, and addiction to alcohol, which ultimately resulted in suicide.
Dana Plato (American actress, 1964–1999, 34 y.o.)
(5) Dan Plato is a child star, also belongs to the category of the Celebrities who Committed suicide. She started playing Kimberley Drummond’s character on the TV sitcom Diff’rent Strokes at the age of just 14. She took the start of her career only at this young age, and thus because of her character, she was the favorite of many TV shows’ audiences. She tried to get hired and work as an adult star with the ending of her series, including modeling for playboy.
However, fortune did not support her this time. She got a divorce, and the financial matters became complex, and things continued to go downhill very fast. In the end, Plato committed suicide by poisoning herself with an overdose of prescription meds. Ironically, her son, Tyler Lambert, also committed suicide on the very same day in 2010.
Robin Williams (American actor, 1951–2014, 63 y.o.)
(6) Robin Williams is one of the most successful, famous, and cherished comedians and actors of his time. The life of Robin followed the course reading way to fame for an exceptional comic — from nearby bars to a significant TV job (Mork and Mindy) to HBO specials, lastly, turning into a notable famous actor.
However, Robin experienced misery in the later, long periods of his life. There were reports he experienced a psychological problem and depression that prompted him balancing himself at his California home in Paradise Gay in 2014. The misfortune is that a man who consumed a large portion of his time on earth, making countless individuals smile and laugh, was loaded up with a misery we were unable to see or comprehend.
Lucy Gordon (Actress, 1980–2009, 28 y.o.)
(7) Lucy Gordon a role player in the movies Spider-Man 3 and Serendipity that she turned to from her modeling career to acting. Gordon was born in England, but then she moved to New York to boost and her career; however, later she moved to Paris, France, and there she started living with her boyfriend, an expert and famous cinematographer.
Gordon committed suicide by hanging herself. She left two notes of her suicide in which one note was depicting the sadness which caused her to end her life, and the second remained unknown. She had just completed a movie – Gainsbourg, that was just to be released.
George Reeves (American actor, 1914–1959, 45 y.o.)
(8) George Reeves the main TV star to need to manage being projected into a featuring job. He was the first TV Superman and had been raised by his mom, his dad leaving him not long after his introduction to the world. He could never observe his dad again. The TV arrangement, The Adventures of Superman, was a triumph, yet following two years, he, like Marilyn Monroe for example, needed to seek other acting jobs. In contrast to Monroe, the makers of the show attempted to discover a substitution so Reeves could proceed onward; however, they couldn’t.
His suicide in 1959 is somewhat dubious because the official reports state he committed suicide by shooting himself, there are many speculations that he was murdered or a victim of an accidental shooting.
Marilyn Monroe (American actress, 1926–1962, 36 y.o.)
(9) Marilyn Monroe in Hollywood, is inseparable from “blonde bombshell” or “Blonde Sensation” reputation. She is one of only a handful of ladies who are quickly associated with the cliché thought of being effective in Hollywood by being an imbecile blonde. Even though her vocation crested in the 1950s, the generalization proceeds right up until the present time. Through fame and union with two significant famous people, she kept on attempting to get away from the generalization by acting in sensational motion pictures rather than comedies that horribly came up short on her and restricted her acting vocation.
Before her passing, she saw a specialist and was given antidepressants to balance out her negative emotions. She was discovered dead in her locked room after taking what a deadly mix of professionally prescribed medications in 1962 was. In spite of the proof, the Los Angeles coroner had marked her death as a “probable suicide.”
Freddie Prinze (Stand-up comedian, 1954–1977, 22 y.o.)
(10) Freddy Prinze is the father of Freddy Prinze Jr., who was known to a great many TV watchers in the arrangement Chico and the Man. He had a long history of wretchedness, overseeing it through his initial victories. Be that as it may, his prosperity was joined with a pained marriage, a marriage he needed to urgently keep together. His endeavors were squandered as his significant other petitioned for legal separation in 1976.
A little while later, in January of 1977, Prinze shot himself in the head before his business supervisor. There were bits of gossip that it was a mishap on the grounds that Prinze was known for kidding around. However, a self-destruction note subdued the gossip. Afterward, it would be uncovered that before he shot himself, he called relatives to bid farewell. He was 22 years of age.
Kushal Punjabi (Indian film actor, 1977–2019, 42 y.o.)
(11) Kushal Punjabi was an Indian film and TV entertainer, and is one of those Celebrities who committed suicide in 2019. Kushal was discovered dead in his home in Pali Hills in Mumbai on December 26, 2019. He was experiencing severe mental health problems, depression, and anxiety. His property was appropriated to his relatives and child, as expressed in his self-destruction note.
Kushal began his profession as an artist and model and has also acted in motion pictures, such as Lakshya, Kaal, Salaam-e-Ishq, and Dhan Dhana Dhan Goal. He was additionally the star of the TV reality game show Zor Ka Jhatka: Total Wipeout in 2011.
Jill Sobel Messick (American film producer, 1967–2018, 50 y.o.)
(12) Jill Sobel Messick is a Hollywood filmmaker, producer, director, and talent manager most popular for delivering the movies “Mean Girls,” “Frida,” and “Baby Mama”. Some weeks before her passing, she had been the survivor of negative exposure and cyberbullying for supposedly helping filmmaker Harvey Weinstein conceal his sexual wrongdoing toward her former customer, entertainer, and actress Rose McGowan.
She battled with bipolar disorder for quite a long while. One day after the commemoration of her mom’s demise on February 7, 2018, she commited suicide at the age of 50. However, the method of her suicide is not publicly disclosed yet.
Miroslava Šternová (Film actress, 1925–1955, 30 y.o.)
(13) Miroslava born in Prague to Jewish guardians, moved to Mexico as a child, where she turned into a mainstream film actress and entertainer. She was thought to be troubled over the recent marriage of Spanish matador Luis Miguel Dominguin; others said she committed suicide because of her love for Mexican joke artist/comedian Cantinflas; still, others guess that Miroslava had killed her.
She committed suicide on March 9, 1955, at the age of 30. An overdose of sleeping pills as a teenager after her boyfriend’s passing was the main reason. However, while committing suicide, she left three notes. The one to her sibling stated, “Forgive me and forget.” It was the subject of the movie “Miroslava,” featuring Arielle Dombasle.
Stefanie Sherk (Canadian actress, 1982–2019, 37 y.o.)
(14) Stefanie Sherk was a Canadian actress, celebrity, and entertainer most popular for the film “Valentine’s Day” and the TV shows “Fabulous Hotel” and “#Hashtag: The Series” She to Oscar-named entertainer Demian Bichir. Bichir said she had a background marked by misery, uneasiness, and sleep deprivation; she was likewise discouraged over the demise of her grandma and canine, both of whom had passed on four months sooner.
On April 20, 2019, age 37, she committed suicide, by weighing her body down with loads and afterward jumped into her pool; she was discovered lethargic at the lower part of the pool and passed on 8 days after the fact after she was taken off life support.
Hagen Mills (Actor, 1990–2020, 29 y.o.)
(15) Hagen Mills is an actor, entertainer most popular for appearing in the TV show “Baskets” and the TV film “Bonnie and Clyde: Justified.” He had a history for drug ownership; he also had past arrests for aggressive behavior such as domestic violence, assault and rape.
Mills committed suicide by killing himself with a self-inflicted gunshot wound, which took birth when he shot his former girlfriend in the arm and the chest in an attempted murder-suicide. However, his former girlfriend survived in this suicidal shooting.
Haruma Miura (Japanese actor, 1990–2020, 30 y.o.)
(16) Haruma Miura is a Japanese entertainer, actor, and singer. The TV drama “Agri” was his debut and rose to prominence after featuring Koizora, which won the Newcomer of the Year Academy award in Japan.
Miura was an artist and entertainer most popular as an individual from the J-pop gathering Brash Brats and several TV mini-series. He died on 18, 2020, at the age of 30, by hanging himself. Furthermore, he left an undated note that communicated his nervousness, anxiety, and thoughts about suicide.
Sean O’Haire (Wrestler, 1971–2014, 43 y.o.)
(17) Sean O’Haire an American expert wrestler, blended military craftsman or martial artist, and kickboxer, better known by his ring name, Sean O’Haire retired from professional wrestling in 2006 where the main purpose of getting retirement was to compete in both mixed martial arts and kickboxing and then become a hairstylist.
O’Haire, with a history of drug addiction, spent much of his time in rehab and was admitted almost six times in the total of six years, which means he spent his last years struggling and fighting with depression, head injuries, and the career setbacks which ultimately resulted much anxiety, mental disturbance and his suicide. Sean O’Haire, battling with extreme depression, ended his life by hanging himself from the bedpost at the age of 43 on September 8, 2014.
Rob Pilatus (Model, 1965–1998, 32 y.o.)
(18) Robert Pilatus, was discovered dead April 3 out of lodging close to Frankfurt, Germany, subsequent to burning-through liquor and pills, as per the Bild am Sonntag
After the fact that it was revealed that not a single note was sung on their best-selling album, and it had all been lip-synced, and after the forced return to their Grammy in 1990, Rob went into severe depression, through drug addiction and had a few spats with the law throughout the following few years. He reportedly entered drug recovery centers (rehabs) almost multiple times.
He committed suicide in 1991 by slashing his wrists, overdosing on drugs and alcohol, and afterward swinging himself from his gallery. He was saved by the police and sent to a medical clinic. A month prior to his suicide, he did a TV meet in which he expressed he needed to die. His death was administered incidental. In any case, because of his psychological state and past conduct, numerous individuals think he committed suicide.
Hunter Stockton Thompson (Journalist, 1937–2005, 67 y.o.)
(19) Tracker Stockton Thompson is an American columnist, writer, author, content creator, and author of the gonzo journalism movement. He previously rose to conspicuousness with the distribution of Hell’s Angels (1967), a book for which he went through a year living and riding with the Hells Angels cruiser club to compose a first-hand account of the lives and encounters of its individuals.
Thompson committed suicide by self-destruction at 67 years old, following a progression of medical issues. As per his desires, his remains were terminated out of a gun in a ceremony financed by his companion and friend Johnny Depp and companions, including then-Senator John Kerry and Jack Nicholson. He took his life on 20 February 2005, matured 67.
Rachel Roberts (Actress, 1927–1980, 53 y.o.)
(20) Rachel Roberts a British actress and entertainer, was a three-time BAFTA Award victor and an Oscar and Golden Globe-nominated candidate. She had a background marked by liquor abuse, psychological sickness, unpredictable conduct, and eccentric behavior. This included dropping down on the ground like a canine and gnawing individuals on the leg; she likewise undressed out in the open.
Her separation from entertainer Rex Harrison allegedly crushed her. She frantically endeavored to win him back the year she ended her life on November 26, 1980, age 53, by committing suicide. However, he had remarried twice since their separation and was not keen on accommodating with her. So the main reason behind suicide was alcohol, barbiturates, and lye.
Junior Seau (Football player, 1969–2012, 43 y.o.)
(21) Junior Seau was an NFL player for the San Diego Chargers, New England Patriots, and Miami Dolphins. There was a theory that he experienced melancholy or drug abuser/addiction because of some financial or monetary issues and relationship issues, including capture for abusive behavior at home against his sweetheart/girlfriend.
His post-mortem examination uncovered he had mind harm from rehashed blackouts while playing in the NFL. His family sued the NFL for improper demise. Junior Seau committed suicide by a self-inflicted gunshot wound at the chest on May 2, 2012, at 43.
George Sanders (Film actor, 1906–1972, 65 y.o.)
(22) George Sanders is a British film and TV entertainer and actor, most popular for the motion pictures or movies “Rebecca,” “About Eve” (for which he won an Academy Award), “Ivanhoe”, and “The Saint”. In the last years of his life, George experienced dementia, sadness, anxiety, and other medical issues, including a stroke.
George left a self-destruction or suicide note, which stated, “Dear World, I am leaving since I am exhausted. I believe I have lived sufficiently long. I am leaving you with your concerns in this sweet cesspool. Best of luck.”“She tried self-destruction in the remembrance of her young girl’s death, who had passed on in 1970 at 3 days old.
Sylvia Plath (Writer, 1932–1963, 30 y.o.)
(23) Slyvia Plath perhaps the most dynamic artist of the 20th century. For this American writer and author, words were everything from an exceptionally youthful young age. She never considered herself as a women’s activist or feminist. In her sonnets or poems, she criticized the situation of women in the 1950s. The current paper examines her select sonnets regarding sexuality, family, and a quest for personality. These are the fundamental issues of the second rush of women’s liberation.
All through her career, she dove into profound scenes of insomnia and depression. It is presently expected she experienced bipolar disorder. Plath stated: “I need to end it all, get away from duty, slowly return to the womb,” in one of her numerous diaries and journals. She ended her life on 11 February 1963 by placing her head in her London home’s oven while the gas was on.
Sam Sarpong (Actor, 1975–2015, 39 y.o.)
(24) Samuel Osei “Sam Sarpong Jr.” a British entertainer, supermodel, artist, and musician. He acted in more than sixty feature films/movies and 55 TV programs, including such movies as Carmen The Hip Hopera, Love Don’t Cost a Thing, Keeping Up with the Steins, Anchor Baby. Furthermore, no Weapons, for which he won best lead actor/entertainer at the San Diego Black Film/movie Festival. He was likewise the host on MTV’s Yo Momma for three seasons. He was one of the primary dark male models for fashioner Tommy Hilfiger and was the brand’s essence for more than six years.
Sam Sarpong committed suicide on 26, 2015, at 39, by jumping off a bridge. Police and the family tried to convince him for almost seven hours to not jump from the bridge.
Jean Seberg (American actress, 1938–1979, 40 y.o.)
(25) Jean Seberg an American actress and entertainer most popular for her roles in the films “The Mouse That Roared,” “Saint Joan,” and “Breathless”. Seberg portrayed her continuous fight with sadness in her autobiography “Blue Jeans. “She had recently endeavored self-destruction or suicide on the commemoration of her girl’s demise, who had passed on in 1970 at 3 days old.
She had been constantly bothered and maligned by the FBI for her financial contributions or monetary commitments to the NAACP and the Black Panther Party. Her better half censured this for her crumbling psychological wellness and ensuing self-destruction or suicide. Her body was discovered enclosed by a cover in the back seat of her car. A few people accept that someone killed her. The 2018 biopic “Seberg” featuring Kristen Stewart portrays his life. Jean Seberg committed suicide on August 30, 1979, at the age of 40, because of an overdose of barbiturates.
Tony Scott (Film director, 1944–2012, 68 y.o.)
(26) Tony Scott is a productive film chief, Prolific movie director, filmmaker, director, and screenwriter who coordinated the movies “Top Gun,” “Blood red Tide,” “Long periods of Thunder,” “Genuine Romance,” “The Taking of Pelham 123,” and numerous others. He was the sibling of movie chief Ridley Scott who coordinated “Outsider,” “Sharp edge Runner,” “Thelma and Louise,” “Fighter,” and numerous others.
Tony’s sibling said that he had been fighting malignant growth (cancer) for quite a while. In any case, the post-mortem examination indicated no proof of cancer, so he was evidently abating. He left a self-destruction/suicide note. However, the content of the suicidal note was not publicized or delivered to people in general. Tony committed suicide on August 19, 2012, at the age of 69, by jumping off a bridge.
Mindy McCready (American singer, 1975–2013, 37 y.o.)
(27) Mindy McCready an American country music artist most popular for her debut album, Ten Thousand Angels, which was guaranteed twofold Platinum; additionally for the album, If I Don’t Stay the Night was certified Gold. She remained active from 1995 until her death and could record a total of five studio albums.
She had endeavored self-destruction or committed suicide at least multiple times previously – 3 times. She battled with lawful issues and illicit drug use and showed up on the reality TV show “Celebrity Rehab” with Dr. Drew. Mindy McCready was gloomy and despondent over her boyfriend’s passing, who had shot himself to death one month earlier than this incident. Thus, she killed herself from a self-inflicted gunshot wound on February 17, 2013, at 37.
David Strickland (American actor, 1969–1999, 29 y.o.)
(28) David Gordon Strickland, Jr. – a famous actor and entertainer most popular for playing on the sitcom “Unexpectedly Susan”. He had a background marked by chronic drug use, liquor addiction, and bipolar problem/disorder and had endeavored self-destruction or suicide at any rate once previously. He had gone off his Lithium psychiatric treatment a long time before his suicide.
David had been indicted for ownership of crack cocaine and sentenced to three years probation. He ended his life all the prior night he was booked to show up in court for a hearing related to that conviction. David Gordon committed suicide on March 22, 1999, at the age of 29, by hanging himself.
Virginia Woolf (Writer, 1882–1941, 59 y.o.)
(29) Adeline Virginia Woolf an English writer, essayist, and author who is considered one of the most significant, influential, and modern writers of the twentieth century. Furthermore, a pioneer in the utilization of continuous flow as a narrative gadget.
The couple never had children since Leonard trusted Virginia didn’t have the psychological or actual physical strength to bear everything for childbirth. On and off, Woolf battled with anorexia, sleep deprivation (insomnia), and migraines (headaches), and she now and then heard voices.
Woolf experienced bipolar issues and emotional wellness conditions that tormented quite a bit of her life. The day she took her life, she filled her pockets with stones and bounced into the River Ouse. She suffocated on 28 March 1941.
Kerry Von Erich (Professional wrestler, 1960–1993, 33 y.o.)
(30) Kerry Gene Adkisson an American professional wrestler/grappler under the ring with his name as the Kerry Von Erich, The Modern Day Warrior, and The Texas Tornado. Kerry was important for the Von Erich group of expert wrestlers/grapplers.
His two more young siblings Mike and Chris, also belonged to the top and star wrestlers, and likewise, both of them ended their lives by committing suicide. Mike died in 1987 at age 23 and Chris in 1991 at age 21. Another brother, David, was a genius and pro wrestler/grappler and left this world in 1984 at age 25 because of digestive system disorder (inflammation of the intestine). Furthermore, his brother Jack passed on at age 7 of inadvertent electric shock.
His foot was removed because of impairment, and after the mishap, he got dependent on painkillers and other unlawful medications and drugs. He ended it all one-day, February 19, 1993, age 33, of a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the chest in the wake of being prosecuted for cocaine ownership. He likewise had charge issues (taxation issues), a conjugal or marital separation, and was lamenting his 4 siblings’ passings.
Mark Salling (Actor, 1982–2018, 35 y.o.)
(31) Mark Salling an American actor and entertainer famous for his role as Noah “Puck” Puckerman on the TV series Glee. Salling learned at the Los Angeles College of Music prior to playing a role and working as a guitar mentor.
In September 2017, he confessed to ownership of kid erotic entertainment (child pornography) after 50,000 pictures were found on his PC and flash drive or USB. A meeting was set for March 2018, and he was expected to be sentenced to jail for a minimum of 5-7 years. However, on January 30, 2018, at the age of 35, Mark Salling committed suicide in a local park by hanging himself from a tree in a Los Angeles riverbed Tuesday.
Gary Rhodes (Restaurateur, 1960–2019, 59 y.o.)
(32) Superstar culinary expert Gary Rhodes, who set British food up for life, died from a head injury in the wake of falling in his Dubai home at 59 years old on November 26. His family affirmed that after a pleasant dinner with the family, he unexpectedly imploded and died because of subdural hematoma seeping between the skull and mind. The culinary expert, who procured his first Michelin star at 26, was known to acquaint the way of life of gastropub with the world. He was additionally observed in well known global shows like ‘MasterChef’ and ‘Hellfire’s Kitchen’.
Corporate India went into aggregate collective shock after Café Coffee Day organizer VG Siddhartha was found to have ended it all. The body of the espresso aristocrat was found on July 31, two days before he disappeared. After a huge pursuit was dispatched for him, fishermen/anglers in Hoige Bazaar of Mangalore discovered his body by the beach. Days before his disappearance, he left an awful letter for his CCD family, saying ‘sorry’ for falling flat as a business person and assuming liability for all his monetary burden. Known for being camera-shy, the 60-year-old head honcho consistently favored remaining outside the business circles.
Stevie Kathleen Ryan – Born on June 2, 1984, in Riverside, CaliforniaStevie, Kathleen Ryan was an American YouTube character, an actress, a celebrity, an entertainer, and a comic. Ryan was popular and known for her YouTube videos and featuring in the VH1 series Stevie TV.
Stevie Ryan (American YouTuber, 1984–2017, 33 y.o.)
(33) Stevie Kathleen Ryan was born on June 2, 1984, in Riverside, CaliforniaStevie, Kathleen Ryan was an American YouTube character, an actress, a celebrity, an entertainer, and a comic. Ryan was popular and known for her YouTube videos and featuring in the VH1 series Stevie TV.
She had a long history of misery. She was profoundly lamenting the loss of her beloved grandfather, who had passed away in her life and whom she used to love a lot. The day preceding she passed on, she presented an ardent accolade on him on Twitter and discussed the amount she missed him. Ryan committed suicide by hanging herself on July 1, 2017, at the age of 33.
Leo Tolstoy said that “all happy families are alike; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.” The same can be said for the deeply unhappy people, specially these who commit suicide. Suicide is just not related to any single problem every time. Rather, it’s a complex problem that, most of the time, leaves no signs behind to trace the reason. Sometimes this reason is clear, and many times it’s unexplained and questionable.
Any one suicide is a traggedy, but a a celebrity breaks the hearts of many people. After all, all their stories are astonishing, as they belong to various fields of life including actresses, actors, cricketers, stars, singers, models, and some businessmen tycoons. They are the people who have fame, fortune, and every facility in their lives that ordinary people run after.
And yet, all these things don’t seem to be enough. They were still so depressed that, despite their celebrity statuses, they still commit suicide. Still, one thing is for certain, all happy families are alike, meaning that no happy person ever committed a suicide. As such, happiness is still the number one goal we should all aspire even in suicide prevention. And if ever we feel unhappy, we should address the source of negativity, as to prevent unforeseeable problems, and because happiness trumps unhappiness and it makes our lives more enjoyable overall.
 World Health Organization. (2014). Preventing suicide: A global imperative.
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